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Body-shaming – or fat-shaming – is a relatively new term; it means ‘the action or practice of humiliating someone by making mocking or critical comments about their body shape or size’ (Oxford Dictionaries).

Before we get into the nitty-gritty of what my opinion on the subject is, let have a look at some figures:

OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY: INCIDENCE AND PREVALENCE

  1. In 2014, more than 1.9 billion adults, 18 years and older, were overweight. Of these, over 600 million were obese (WHO Obesity Fact Sheet, Updated Oct., 2017)
  2. Going by current trends, by 2025, 2.7 billion adults will be obese (World Obesity Day, 2017)
  3. At the end of the same year, 41 million children under the age of 5, were overweight or obese (WHO Obesity Fact Sheet, Update Oct., 2017)
  4. According to projections, 70 million kids in the pre-school age will be overweight by obese by the year 2025 (Commission on Ending Childhood Obesity (ECHO), WHO, 2017)
  5. ‘The annual global medical bill for treating the consequences of obesity is expected to reach US$1.2 trillion per year by 2025’ (World Obesity Day, 2017)

WHY OVERWEIGHT-OBESITY IS A PROBLEM

Compared with adults with normal weight, overweight-obesity are significantly associated with diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, asthma, arthritis, and poor health status. (Mokdad et al. 2003). Almost all modern non-communicable disease (NCDs), otherwise known as metabolic disorders (including cancer) are either associated with or show a strong causal relationship with obesity or overweight (Lumeng and Saltiel 2011).

Overweight-obese children and adolescents exhibit an earlier onset and raised risk of metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, throughout life (Abarca-Gómez et al. 2017).

MY TAKE ON BODY-SHAMING

Having gotten all the technicalities out of the way; my point is that those who have worked in the field of obesity prevention and reversal will tell you that living a better and wholesome life involves being healthy and feeling good about oneself. Sorry to break your heart, but all of these things are connected. And, no matter what people say, you can’t feel good with a big belly. And for good reason – because obesity is a disease with all manner of inflammation (chronic, systemic) going on inside of you.

Given that being fat is sure to impact your life in a negative manner, I find it amusing that bloggers these days, instead of inspiring people to raise the proverbial bar (in effect, ‘body-shame’ themselves), tell people to ‘get comfortable in their own skin’. Statements like ‘you look great, the way you are’ or ‘it’s OK to be a plus size’ or ‘its OK to have a belly’, in support of people who have overweight-obesity-metabolic disease problems is like effectively supporting lifestyle diseases. Why would you do that? After all, you don’t support people having addictions or a criminal mindset, do you? You’d want them to change, wouldn’t you?

In my years of experience in the field of obesity, I’ve noticed that overweight-obese people tend to relax the moment they get some support from somewhere. And, that’s why I have a big problem with these ‘anti-body-shaming’ and ‘pro-plus-size model’ crusaders. Fair enough, it is wrong to body-shame others; I wouldn’t want people to body shame others. But I do believe, everyone should be incessantly body-shaming themselves (without being depressed about it, though). Not being happy with your own self, is the surest way to keep improving!

quotes_my_quotes_body_shaming.jpg

More often, we are not critical enough of our own problems. Hell, if you look at the different stages of change, 80% of us rarely ever do anything about the problems we face in life – a whopping 40% of us don’t even realise there’s a problem, let alone institute changes!

Stages of Change

TAKE HOME MESSAGE

Being overweight or obese is not healthy. Don’t let anyone convince you otherwise, don’t let anyone tell you that it is OK to be a ‘plus size’ and never let anyone convince you it is OK to have a belly. Because, no it isn’t.

Weight, health-fitness, looks, being happy and excited about your own self and a productive, wholesome life are inherently interconnected.  Don’t wait till someone body-shames you (and even, if they do, take the criticism constructively); you should be body-shaming yourself. You should raise the bar high, and want the best for you.

PS: I wish, people – especially, the ones having a large fan-following – stopped spreading utter nonsense like ‘it’s OK to have a belly’. If you aren’t well-versed with the subject, please refrain from writing about it.

For enquiries on how to effectively treat-reverse or reduce the risk of overweight-obesity-metabolic diseases, please feel free to get in touch with me.

Women's Health Services

Men's Health Services

REFERENCES

Abarca-Gómez, Leandra, Ziad A Abdeen, Zargar Abdul Hamid, Niveen M Abu-Rmeileh, Benjamin Acosta-Cazares, Cecilia Acuin, Robert J Adams, et al. 2017. “Worldwide Trends in Body-Mass Index, Underweight, Overweight, and Obesity from 1975 to 2016: A Pooled Analysis of 2416 Population-Based Measurement Studies in 128·9 Million Children, Adolescents, and Adults.” The Lancet 0 (0): 1–16. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32129-3.

Lumeng, Carey N., and Alan R. Saltiel. 2011. “Inflammatory Links between Obesity and Metabolic Disease.” Journal of Clinical Investigation. doi:10.1172/JCI57132.

Mokdad, Ali H, Earl S Ford, Barbara A Bowman, William H Dietz, Frank Vinicor, Virginia S Bales, and James S Marks. 2003. “Prevalence of Obesity, Diabetes, and Obesity-Related Health Risk Factors, 2001.” JAMA : The Journal of the American Medical Association 289 (1): 76–79. doi:10.1001/jama.289.1.76.

WHO. 2011. “WHO Fact Sheet, Updated Oct., 2017.” WHO Fact Sheet, Updated October, 2017.

WHO. 2016. “Report of the Commission on Ending Childhood Obesity.” WHO. doi:ISBN 978 92 4 151006 6.

 

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The whole town and his wife seems to be using whey protein.

Whey protein isolate – everybody knows – works; you know it works. It is the best protein for improving body composition (reducing fat while improving lean mass)! Or is it really?!

Whey protein isolate may be the best protein for you in most instances, that may not be the case always! Depending on your fitness goal, whey protein concentrate (and, even casein!) can sometime give whey isolate a run for its money. How is that?!

Well, read on to find out!

However, before we get into the nitty-gritty of which type of whey will best serve your purpose, let us get to know a bit more about why you should supplement with whey, in the first place.


Why should I take whey supplements?

Resistance training causes increase in muscle mass. This is due to increased muscle protein synthesis (MPS) that resistance training induces (Hulmi et al., 2009; Hakkinen et al., 2001; Hulmi et al., 2007). However, intense workouts alone are not enough to keep packing on lean muscle mass; you have to ‘stay anabolic’ most of the time to be able to keep that MPS working for you.

Without complicating matters, here’s a look at how resistance training increases lean muscle mass: a resistance training session causes muscle protein breakdown. This is then followed by repair of the damaged muscle tissue so that the muscles come out stronger the next time you hit the weights. For the muscles to get stronger, however, proteins ingestion (over and above normal needs) is crucial. Needless to say, the process of repair will suffer if you aren’t loading up on proteins.

That resistance training combined with protein supplementation causes muscle hypertrophy is well-documented (Moore et al., 2009; Hulmi et al., 2009; Cribb, Williams, Carey, & Hayes, 2006).  Ingestion of a whey protein supplement either immediately before or after a training session is – considered by some – to be the best for this purpose; also whey increases muscle protein turnover like no other protein. Furthermore, whey protein seems to work equally well in women as well (Josse, Tang, Tarnopolsky, & Phillips, 2010).

Another benefit of supplementing with whey is, improved post-workout recovery  This is likely due to the ‘anti-catabolic’ action of essential amino acids (Bird, Tarpenning, & Marino, 2006; Hoffman et al., 2010; Etheridge, Philp, & Watt, 2008).


What is Whey Protein?

You most likely know that whey is one of the 2 milk proteins – the other being casein. Casein is the more abundant of the two and it is casein that gives milk that white colour. In commercially available cow’s milk, 20% of protein is whey while the rest of it is casein (Hulmi, Lockwood, & Stout, 2010; Ha & Zemel, 2003; Etzel, 2004; Krissansen, 2007).

Whey is produced in large amounts as a by-product in the cheese industry. However, this whey has loads of fat, milk sugar (lactose) and salts in it and is not suitable for improving body composition.

During the process of whey purification, whey concentrate and isolate are produced sequentially. During the initial steps, larger molecules are separated out resulting in formation of whey concentrate. These larger molecules are proteins, lactose, immunoglobulins, amongst other less important ones. To produce whey isolate, cheese whey is passed through an ultrafiltration process (ion exchange or other methods). The ultra membrane filters fat, milk sugar (lactose), salts and other unwanted ingredients leaving behind a pure form of whey (Barile et al., 2009).

Hydrolysates, on the other hand, are formulations where large protein molecules are broken down into smaller fragments. The hypothesis is that this might further increase the rate of absorption of whey. However, this might not be totally true and hydrolysates may not offer much of an advantage over isolates or concentrates.


Types of Whey Protein

Whey is available commercially as either isolate or concentrate. ‘So, what’s the difference between them and which one should I be using’, you might want to ask?

The main difference between the two is the quality and the amount of protein content – isolate is purer and thus will contain almost 100% protein (well, 90-94% to be precise) while whey concentrate will contain protein ranging from 70-85%.

‘Well, that settles it – I am going with whey isolate!’, you might say. Hang on, not so fast! There is more to it than just protein content.


Comparing Whey Isolate and Whey Concentrate

Since whey isolate is higher in protein content, has a better amino acid ratio and thus bioavailability, it is absorbed into your system way quicker than whey concentrate (or any other protein, for that matter). That makes whey isolate the ideal post-exercise anabolic drink (Hulmi et al., 2009). Some researchers have suggested taking whey protein isolate before workouts as well in addition to your routine post-workout shake for maximum benefits (Esmark et al., 2001; Cribb & Hayes, 2006). Quicker absorption will mean almost instantaneous rise in blood amino acids which are then taken up by ‘hungry muscles’.

Having said that, the need for immediate post-workout protein supplementation in now being increasingly questioned (more below).

High protein content and higher quality of protein, however, that does not clinch the deal in favour of whey isolate. Concentrate has something up its sleeve that will make sit up and take notice!

As stated earlier, in comparison to isolate, whey protein concentrate will contain lesser amount of protein (in the range of 70-85%). However, somewhat similar to casein, whey protein concentrate will get absorbed slowly – this helps you stay anabolic for longer! Slower absorption also helps with absorption of other important nutrients from food like calcium. Not a lot of people know this but calcium plays an important role in causing fat loss (in addition to keeping your bones healthy)! Add to that the added benefit of appetite suppression for longer and casein suddenly become an important tool for your fat-loss goals or intermittent-fasting health journey…

Furthermore, whey protein concentrate is loaded with immunoglobulins – this helps boost your immune system and therefore may be beneficial in dealing with the intense stresses of training (especially if you happen to overtrain!).


Whey Isolate

Pros

    • pure; contains 90-94% protein!
    • purity means that it is great for gaining / maintaining lean mass while getting ripped (ideal when nearing competition or a photo shoot)
    • contains all essential amino acids in the best possible ratios
    • bioavailability for humans is best amongst all proteins – meaning, of the amount ingested, more is likely to be absorbed. For instance, in a scoop containing 25 g of whey isolate, almost all of the protein in there, will be going into your muscle
    • lightening fast absorption; ideal post-exercise drink – helps you get into the anabolic mode almost immediately

Cons

    • pricier than whey protein concentrate – to ensure purity, the commercial production of whey necessitates use of complex filtration procedure, hence the price
    • although whey isolate will help recovery after workouts, it loses out to whey concentrate in some respects. This is so because immune boosting constituents of milk protein like alpha – lactoglobulins and lactoferrins are removed during the purification process

Whey Concentrate

Pros:

    • lot cheaper than whey isolate
    • has a slower absorption rate than whey protein isolates; thus ensures a steady state of elevated amino acids in the blood and helps you stay anabolic for longer. This also reduces the need for frequent dosing
    • slower absorption helps with absorption of other important minerals like calcium and reducing blood glucose and lipid levels
    • induces appetite suppression which may help longer fasting interval, thereby improving body composition and metabolic disease parameters
    • contains immune boosting complexes (alpha – lactoglobulins and lactoferrins) which help post-exercise muscle recovery
    • helps fight diseases – for instance, chronic hepatitis C (Elattar et al., 2010)

Cons:

    • some amount of fat will be present so not ideally suited during times when keeping body fat% down is desirable
    • if you have any degree of intolerance to milk and dairy products, you might want to forget using whey concentrate on account of its lactose content – which is missing from the more purer whey isolate

TAKE HOME MESSAGE

In conclusion, isolate and concentrate are equally good – however, your circumstances – price, training goals and lactose intolerance – should tip the scales in favour of one or the other.


Recent developments

  1. More recently, the presence of a post-workout anabolic window (of opportunity) is being increasing questioned. ‘Not only is nutrient timing research open to question in terms of applicability, but recent evidence has directly challenged the classical view of the relevance of post-exercise nutritional intake with respect to anabolism’ (Aragon and Schoenfeld, 2013). The amount and quality of protein that you consume throughout the day is, now, thought to be more important than immediate post-workout whey ingestion.
  2. BCAAs (branched-chain amino acids – leucine, isoleucine and valine) may be overrated and ‘data do not seem to support a benefit to BCCA supplementation during periods of caloric restriction’ (Dieter BP, Schoenfeld BJ and Aragon AA, 2016).

Reference List

Aragon AA, Schoenfeld BJ (2013). Nutrient timing revisited: is there a post-exercise anabolic window? Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2013;10:5 /1550-2783-10-5.

Barile, D., Tao, N., Lebrilla, C. B., Coisson, J. D., Arlorio, M., & German, J. B. (2009). Permeate from cheese whey ultrafiltration is a source of milk oligosaccharides. Int Dairy J, 19, 524-530.

Bird, S. P., Tarpenning, K. M., & Marino, F. E. (2006). Liquid carbohydrate/essential amino acid ingestion during a short-term bout of resistance exercise suppresses myofibrillar protein degradation. Metabolism, 55, 570-577.

Cribb, P. J. & Hayes, A. (2006). Effects of supplement timing and resistance exercise on skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Med Sci.Sports Exerc., 38, 1918-1925.

Cribb, P. J., Williams, A. D., Carey, M. F., & Hayes, A. (2006). The effect of whey isolate and resistance training on strength, body composition, and plasma glutamine. Int J Sport Nutr.Exerc.Metab, 16, 494-509.

Dieter BP, Schoenfeld BJ, Aragon AA.(2016). The data do not seem to support a benefit to BCAA supplementation during periods of caloric restriction. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition;13:21. doi:10.1186/s12970-016-0128-9.

Elattar, G., Saleh, Z., El-Shebini, S., Farrag, A., Zoheiry, M., Hassanein, A. et al. (2010). The use of whey protein concentrate in management of chronic hepatitis C virus – a pilot study. Arch.Med Sci., 6, 748-755.

Esmarck, B., Andersen, J. L., Olsen, S., Richter, E. A., Mizuno, M., & Kjaer, M. (2001). Timing of postexercise protein intake is important for muscle hypertrophy with resistance training in elderly humans. J Physiol, 535, 301-311.

Etheridge, T., Philp, A., & Watt, P. W. (2008). A single protein meal increases recovery of muscle function following an acute eccentric exercise bout. Appl.Physiol Nutr.Metab, 33, 483-488.

Etzel, M. R. (2004). Manufacture and use of dairy protein fractions. J Nutr., 134, 996S-1002S.

Ha, E. & Zemel, M. B. (2003). Functional properties of whey, whey components, and essential amino acids: mechanisms underlying health benefits for active people (review). J Nutr.Biochem., 14, 251-258.

Hakkinen, K., Pakarinen, A., Kraemer, W. J., Hakkinen, A., Valkeinen, H., & Alen, M. (2001). Selective muscle hypertrophy, changes in EMG and force, and serum hormones during strength training in older women. J Appl.Physiol, 91, 569-580.

Hoffman, J. R., Ratamess, N. A., Tranchina, C. P., Rashti, S. L., Kang, J., & Faigenbaum, A. D. (2010). Effect of a proprietary protein supplement on recovery indices following resistance exercise in strength/power athletes. Amino.Acids, 38, 771-778.

Hulmi, J. J., Ahtiainen, J. P., Kaasalainen, T., Pollanen, E., Hakkinen, K., Alen, M. et al. (2007). Postexercise myostatin and activin IIb mRNA levels: effects of strength training. Med Sci.Sports Exerc., 39, 289-297.

Hulmi, J. J., Kovanen, V., Selanne, H., Kraemer, W. J., Hakkinen, K., & Mero, A. A. (2009). Acute and long-term effects of resistance exercise with or without protein ingestion on muscle hypertrophy and gene expression. Amino.Acids, 37, 297-308.

Hulmi, J. J., Lockwood, C. M., & Stout, J. R. (2010). Effect of protein/essential amino acids and resistance training on skeletal muscle hypertrophy: A case for whey protein. Nutr.Metab (Lond), 7, 51.

Josse, A. R., Tang, J. E., Tarnopolsky, M. A., & Phillips, S. M. (2010). Body composition and strength changes in women with milk and resistance exercise. Med Sci.Sports Exerc., 42, 1122-1130.

Krissansen, G. W. (2007). Emerging health properties of whey proteins and their clinical implications. J Am Coll.Nutr., 26, 713S-723S.

Moore, D. R., Tang, J. E., Burd, N. A., Rerecich, T., Tarnopolsky, M. A., & Phillips, S. M. (2009). Differential stimulation of myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic protein synthesis with protein ingestion at rest and after resistance exercise. J Physiol, 587, 897-904.

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You’d probably find this hard to believe but empirical physicians like Galen and Hippocrates, many millennia ago, predicted the ‘epidemic’ of  human obesity and the problems that it would cause (1)! Despite such warnings, most cultures of the world, even to this day, have tended to look upon obesity as a sign of good health (2).

More often than not, you are made to believe that lack of physical activity (PA) combined with overeating leads to (overweight and) obesity. However, that is now being questioned. Notwithstanding the reasons for overweight and obese, being overweight or obese puts you at a greater risk of metabolic disorders like diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, arthritis and cancer, to name a few (1-7).

According to NHANES, up until the end of 2010, of the adult US population (older than 20 years), 33% were overweight, 35.7% obese and 6.3% were classified as extremely obese (8) – that makes for a staggering 75% of adults with ‘weight problems’! While those figures are from 2010, one can only imagine what the picture must be like now!

In other parts of the world, prevalence of obesity and overweight is quite similar to (if not more extreme than) that in the US. According to Jacob C. Seidell, obesity is as common in the UK as in the US (9). Countries undergoing rapid economic growth – notably in Latin America and Asia – reflect similar figures as well (10).

As if these figures aren’t frightening enough, get a load of this – in 2010, medical bills for treating obesity and overweight individuals in the US alone was $270 billion (11;12)! Add to that, the costs for treating the associated ill-effects – cardiovascular disease, diabetes and others – and you’d understand why humanity can no longer afford to be overweight anymore.

3-Meal-a-Day? Really?!

Owing to the current ‘epidemic proportions’ (I have tended to call it a pandemic – and rightly so!) of obesity and its ill-effects – our dietary patterns have come into sharp focus. Although, ‘3-meals a day’ is the norm in most geographical areas of the world, there is no scientific basis for this being the best strategy for achieving optimal human health. In recent times, therefore, researchers have begun to question the rationale of the traditional ‘3-meals a day’ diet and have wondered if reduction in the number of meals (less than 3) may prove to be beneficial in fighting obesity.

6-Meals-a-Day?! Get out of ‘ere!

Most dietitians, fitness and weight-loss gurus are likely to recommend ‘6-meals-a-day’ type of diet (snacking) for weight-loss. The general perception is that smaller, frequent meals during the course of the day increase metabolic rate and are generally better for maintaining a healthier weight. However, contrary to popular belief, there is no scientific proof – none whatsoever – that ‘snacking’ bumps up your metabolism and will help you lose weight! There is some evidence that increasing the frequency of meals (snacks) – while keeping calories constant – may affect physiological parameters favorably – lower serum glucose, insulin and lipid levels (13;14). However, the proof in favor of reduced meal frequency (as compared to snacking) in preventing metabolic diseases as well as obesity is much stronger.

In addition to the lack of evidence for its effectiveness, there are several downsides of frequent snacking. Reducing meal frequency, on the other hand, may prove to be a win-win situation for you!

Downsides of frequent snacking

    • A snack when eaten in a non-hungry state, may cause weight gain – this is likely due to the calorie-dense nature and high sugar content of the snack; such snacks, by default will be poor in nutrients; these lead to decreased satiety and subsequently, increased hunger (15)
    • Even if your snack was high in protein (a protein shake, for instance), it wouldn’t amount to much suppression of hunger. Consequently, the energy intake during the next meal would still be higher than after a ‘no-snack’ (or skipped meal) period  (16)
    • Furthermore,  frequent  snacking  has  been  shown  to  increase  the  risk  of developing type-2 diabetes (17)

Positives of reduced meal frequency (and intermittent fasting)

(13;17-21)
    • reduced body weight,
    • arrested development of metabolic diseases,
    • improved quality of health, and
    • longevity

Interestingly enough, the benefits derived from reduced food intake work independent of the number of calories consumed (18;20).

Based on these observations, recent dietary trends (although not by ‘mainstream nutritionists’) have tended to recommended reduced meal frequency (and intermittent fasting) over frequent snacking.

So, what exactly are the health benefits that you can expect by reducing the number of times you eat in a day? In addition to the obvious benefits on body weight and body composition, there are other benefits to be had as well. Here are some (18;22;23):

    • decreased blood insulin levels
    • decreased blood glucose levels
    • decreased blood pressure
    • decreased heart rate
    • decreased predisposition to cardiac or brain cell injury
    • enhanced immunity

Improvement in the above mentioned physiological parameters will help you prevent or reduce the severity of disorders like obesity, diabetes – type 2 and cardiovascular diseases. In case, you are wondering why reducing meal frequency would work for you, have a look through some of the theories that have been proposed by researchers for the alleged benefits of reduced meal frequency.

Theories for Benefits of Reduced Meal Frequency

Oxidative Stress Theory

The processes of ageing and development of ‘ageing-related diseases’ are due to oxidative stresses that our bodies are exposed to on a daily basis; the dreaded free oxygen radical (otherwise known as reactive oxygen) is responsible for these stresses. Reduced meal frequency and intermittent fasting tends to slow down and reduce the production of these oxygen radicals and thereby, the oxidative processes (17;19;24); hence, the reported benefits.

Energy Metabolism Theory

The Energy Metabolism Theory suggests that dietary restriction – either as reduced meal frequency or intermittent fasting – has a positive influence on calorie equation. Furthermore, it increases sensitivity to key hormones, especially, insulin (25). And, since insulin resistance plays a major role in the development of obesity and other metabolic diseases, increased insulin sensitivity as a result of reduced meal frequency is more than likely to be of benefit.

Cellular Stress Response Theory

The Cellular Stress Response Theory is quite an interesting theory; it proposes that decreasing your meal frequency induces a stress response from cells. The stress response involves up-regulation of receptors and genes – this makes cells stronger so they can cope with all kinds of physiological or pathological stresses (24). The end result – a healthier you with better chances of fighting metabolic disease.

Data obtained from animal studies has supported the fact that reducing meal frequency can be beneficial to general health and well-being (18;26-28). Additionally, human clinical studies have also reported the benefits of reduced meal frequency (26). Also, regular consumption of breakfast (although, I am not a big proponent of the ‘healthy breakfast’ idea, a story for another day) while reducing the frequency of meals through the rest of the day seems to have an even bigger effect – both on obesity and disease prevention (27-29).

TAKE HOME MESSAGE

Six-meals-a-day diet is history! Reducing meal frequency is the ‘in-thing’. Regular breakfast consumption while reducing the frequency of meals through the rest of the day has several positive benefits on human health such as:

    • improvements in body composition,
    • reduction of risk for cardiovascular-metabolic diseases, and
    • an anti-aging effect

A WORD OF CAUTION THOUGH – don’t go overboard and eat tons of calories at one go, suddenly; you’d have build up gradually if were to, let’s say eat a 1500 calorie meal of nutrient-dense foods and then fast for 20 hours!

Another thing you need to be wary of is that this kind of diet would work best if you added some amount of exercise training to it – short and brutal workouts like high-intensity interval training, sprint intervals or Olympic lifting would work wonders!

I don’t know about you, but with an impressive ‘benefits profile’ like that, I’d be certainly tempted to give reduced meal frequency a try.

PS: This article is more relevant for those looking to lose weight and improve general well-being and health; sports-specific nutrition is a totally different ball game!

 

References

(1) Belkina AC, Denis GV. Obesity genes and insulin resistance. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 2010; 17(5):472-477.

(2) Haslam D. Obesity: a medical history. Obes Rev 2007; 8 Suppl 1:31-36.

(3) Bastard JP, Maachi M, Lagathu C, Kim MJ, Caron M, Vidal H et al. Recent advances in the relationship between obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance. Eur Cytokine Netw 2006; 17(1):4-12.

(4) Grossman SP. The role of glucose, insulin and glucagon in the regulation of food intake and body weight. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 1986; 10(3):295-315.

(5) Guyenet  SJ,  Schwartz  MW.  Clinical  review:  Regulation  of food  intake, energy balance, and body fat mass: implications for the pathogenesis and treatment of obesity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2012; 97(3):745-755.

(6) Mayer J. Glucostatic mechanism of regulation of food intake. 1953. Obes Res 1996; 4(5):493-496.

(7) Shai I, Schwarzfuchs D, Henkin Y, Shahar DR, Witkow S, Greenberg I et al. Weight loss with a low-carbohydrate, Mediterranean, or low-fat diet. N Engl J Med 2008; 359(3):229-241.

(8) Fryar CD, Carroll MD, Ogden CL. Prevalence of Overweight, Obesity and Extreme  Obesity Amongst  adults:  United  States,  Trends  1960-1962  Through  2009-2010.

(9) Seidell JC. Obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes–a worldwide epidemic. Br J Nutr 2000; 83 Suppl 1:S5-S8.

(10) Seidell JC, Rissanen A. Time trends in the worldwide prevalence of obesity. In: Bray GA, Bouchard C, James WPT, editors. Handbook of Obesity. New York: Marcel Dekker; 1998. 79-91.

(11) Behan DF, Cox SH, Lin Y, Pai J, Pedersen HW, Yi M. Obesity and its Relation to Mortality and Morbidity Costs. 2010. Obesity and its Relation         to         Mortality         and         Morbidity         Costs. http://www.soa.org/research/research-projects/life-insurance/research- obesity-relation-mortality.aspx

(12) Xia Q, Grant SF. The genetics of human obesity. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2013; 1281:178-190.

(13) Jenkins DJ, Wolever TM, Vuksan V, Brighenti F, Cunnane SC, Rao AV et al. Nibbling  versus  gorging:  metabolic  advantages  of  increased  meal frequency. N Engl J Med 1989; 321(14):929-934.

(14) Timlin MT, Pereira MA. Breakfast frequency and quality in the etiology of adult obesity and chronic diseases. Nutr Rev 2007; 65(6 Pt 1):268-281.

(15) Arnold  L,  Mann  JI,  Ball  MJ.  Metabolic  effects  of  alterations  in  meal frequency in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 1997; 20(11):1651-1654.

(16) Marmonier  C,  Chapelot  D,  Louis-Sylvestre  J.  Effects  of  macronutrient content and energy density of snacks consumed in a satiety state on the onset of the next meal. Appetite 2000; 34(2):161-168.

(17) Mekary RA, Giovannucci E, Willett WC, van Dam RM, Hu FB. Eating patterns and type 2 diabetes risk in men: breakfast omission, eating frequency, and snacking. Am J Clin Nutr 2012; 95(5):1182-1189.

(18) Anson RM, Guo Z, de CR, Iyun T, Rios M, Hagepanos A et al. Intermittent fasting dissociates beneficial effects of dietary restriction on glucose metabolism and neuronal resistance to injury from calorie intake. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2003; 100(10):6216-6220.

(19) Guo Z, Ersoz A, Butterfield DA, Mattson MP. Beneficial effects of dietary restriction on cerebral cortical synaptic terminals: preservation of glucose and glutamate transport and mitochondrial function after exposure to amyloid beta-peptide, iron, and 3-nitropropionic acid. J Neurochem 2000; 75(1):314-320.

(20) Wang ZQ, Bell-Farrow AD, Sonntag W, Cefalu WT. Effect of age and caloric restriction on insulin receptor binding and glucose transporter levels in aging rats. Exp Gerontol 1997; 32(6):671-684.

(21) Wing RR, Blair EH, Bononi P, Marcus MD, Watanabe R, Bergman RN. Caloric restriction per se is a significant factor in improvements in glycemic control and insulin sensitivity during weight loss in obese NIDDM patients. Diabetes Care 1994; 17(1):30-36.

(22) Lane MA, Mattison J, Ingram DK, Roth GS. Caloric restriction and aging in primates: Relevance to humans and possible CR mimetics. Microsc Res Tech 2002; 59(4):335-338.

(23) Wan R, Camandola S, Mattson MP. Intermittent fasting and dietary supplementation with 2-deoxy-D-glucose improve functional and metabolic cardiovascular risk factors in rats. FASEB J 2003; 17(9):1133-1134.

(24) Sohal RS, Weindruch R. Oxidative stress, caloric restriction, and aging. Science 1996; 273(5271):59-63.

(25) Speakman JR, Selman C, McLaren JS, Harper EJ. Living fast, dying when? The  link  between  aging  and  energetics.  J  Nutr  2002;  132 (6  Suppl 2):1583S-1597S.

(26) Stote KS, Baer DJ, Spears K, Paul DR, Harris GK, Rumpler WV et al. A controlled trial of reduced meal frequency without caloric restriction in healthy,  normal-weight,  middle-aged  adults.  Am  J  Clin  Nutr  2007; 85(4):981-988.

(27) Farshchi HR, Taylor MA, Macdonald IA. Deleterious effects of omitting breakfast on insulin sensitivity and fasting lipid profiles in healthy lean women. Am J Clin Nutr 2005; 81(2):388-396.

(28)  Smith  KJ,  Gall  SL,  McNaughton  SA,  Blizzard  L,  Dwyer  T,  Venn  AJ. Skipping breakfast: longitudinal associations with cardiometabolic risk factors in the Childhood Determinants of Adult Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr 2010; 92(6):1316-1325.

(29) Yamamoto R, Kawamura T, Wakai K, Ichihara Y, Anno T, Mizuno Y et al. Favorable life-style modification and attenuation of cardiovascular risk factors. Jpn Circ J 1999; 63(3):184-188.

 

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Is there a connection between fitness and sexual activity? Would being fat and unfit prevent you from being a great bedroom performer? Chances are – YES; you can achieve much greater things by being leaner and fitter!

couple-holding-hands-intimately-in-bed

Which bring us to the question – could exercise be prescribed to those who want to improve their bedroom performance?! Shouldn’t functional training – which improves efficiency in carrying out our daily functioning – be doing the same for your love life as well? Well, it most definitely should!

Importance of sexual activity in human life

Feeding for one’s survival and indulging in sexual activity for the survival of one’s species are the most basic of all activities – for (almost) all life forms; human beings are no different!

Although even mentioning it, let alone discussing sexual intercourse is still a taboo is most parts of the world, it is an undeniable fact that sexual activity is an integral part of human existence. Thus, it is not at all surprising that striving to be ‘sexually desirable’ by the opposite sex is an inherent part of the human psyche.

Love making and a fit body

Almost everyone out there yearns a good-looking, lean companion, preferably someone with whom you enjoy great chemistry. Have you ever wondered why these qualities are foremost on everyone’s mind?

Well, because these qualities don’t just define physical appearance but have a deep-rooted meaning to them. Optimising chances of conception seems to be at the basis for all of these qualities that you seek.

What we are really looking for – while we may not know it, but these ‘likable qualities’ have been ‘genetically programmed’ in our subconscious minds – is this:

  • good-looking – carries high-quality genetic material
  • improved body composition – a lean waist and toned body with lower body-fat – physiologically and functionally more capable of the sexual act increasing the likelihood of a successful conception
  • right chemistry – the right kind of hormones (running through veins, as they say), the right psychosomatic connections and what-have-yous! Again, these will increase frequency and quality of sexual encounters and thereby, a successful conception

Now, if you are one of those who can read between lines, you will realize that all the above parameters – with the exception of genes, to a certain extent – can be improved by exercise. Agreed you can’t do much about your lack of a good genetic make-up  but – as any good coach will tell you – the ‘not-so-good genes’ shouldn’t stop you from ‘maximizing your potential’.

So here’s how exercise will help you with improving your ‘bedroom performance’ and turning your into a dream lover! But first, let’s see why the same fitness parameters that will improve your on-field sports performance will likely improve your bedroom performance too. And, regular indulgence in one may benefit the other.

Similarities between exercise and love-making

Since ‘lovemaking’ makes use of the very fitness parameters that typically epitomize short-burst interval training, it can be argued that either of these activities may help in improving performance in the other.

Here are some similarities (that I can think of):

  • Fitness parameters used

It is an undeniable fact that sexual activity is akin to exercise – with adrenergic system hyper-drive hearts pounding, blood pressure rising, breathing going haywire, sweating and what-have-you! Shouldn’t come as surprise really, when I tell you that you are using almost all the systems you’d use when working out – not to mention, hitting all components of fitness – cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle strength-power-endurance, et. al.

It should be a no-brainer that to improve your bedroom performance, you’ve got to improve your fitness.

  • Hormonal response

Testosterone is the major male sex hormone – it is instrumental in increasing libido, improving erections and sperm counts. Resistance training, – especially squatting – and HIIT boosts testosterone levels (Craig et al, 1989). Regular sexual activity has a similar effect – even watching porn – boosts testosterone secretion many folds over normal! Testosterone has prominent anabolic actions: helps pack on lean muscle mass, stimulates metabolism and improves body composition by decreasing body fat. This improved body composition, not to mention vigor, comes in handy (pun-unintended!) when it comes to your bedroom performance. Also, improved sperm counts will mean increased chances of conception

Read about the effects of low testosterone levels here.

  • Immune response 

Exercise and regular sexual activity have both been reported to cause increased levels of antibodies – improved serum antibody levels helps fight infections (Brennan and Charnetski, 2000). Studies have shown that those who indulge in sexual activity 2 to 3 times a week exhibited higher levels of IgA antibodies as compared to those who ‘do it’ infrequently (Charnetski and Brennan, 2004).

  • Calories burned

As we all know, exercise is a great way of burning calories over and above those required for your daily chores. Likewise, sexual activity is quite effective at burning calories as well (O’Keefe et al., 2010a;O’Keefe et al., 2011). It might surprise you to know that 30 minutes of intense ‘love-making’ can help you burn as many as 200 calories (O’Keefe et al., 2010b) which would equate roughly to about 15 min. of jogging on the treadmill or a entire weight-training session in the gym.

A word of caution here though: sexual activity alone cannot replace a calorie-deficit diet and being active through the day (improved NEAT – non-exercise activity thermogenesis) as the number one way of inducing fat loss.

  • Cardiac Function 

During a sexual act, you are operating intermittently at heart rates of 150 beats per minute and systolic blood pressures of 200 mm Hg. Thus, cardiovascular dynamics and workloads similar to short-burst interval training are mimicked.  This ‘heart rate training’ induced by sexual activity can, therefore, act as a great cardiovascular exercise and a metabolic-simulator! Conversely, regular sessions of short-burst interval training combined with weights can help you improve your ‘performance in bed’.

  • Busting stress and improving quality of sleep

Exercise and regular sexual activity – by virtue of secretion of endorphins and suppression of cortisone – improve mood, function and help fight stress. Prolactin secretion (which has a close association with sexual intercourse) also causes mood elevation. In addition to these, secretion of oxytocin and the phenomenon of ‘resolution’ – relaxation associated with orgasm – together will put you to a ‘peaceful sleep’. A restful sleep also ensure proper diurnal secretion of growth hormone.

Furthermore, reduced resting heart rates and diastolic blood pressure as a consequence of regular exercise and sexual activity keeps your stress levels reduced throughout the day.

  • Improved muscle tone

By increasing lean mass and decreasing body fat, exercise can help you get the most out of your ‘performances’. Strong pelvic floor musculature is of paramount importance in women as well as in men for deriving optimal pleasure.

Training to produce strong isometric contractions of the pelvic floor can help achieve better erections in males – being able to contract pelvic floor musculature intensely is one of the techniques recommended for treating erectile dysfunction. In women, strong pelvic floor – in combination with strong abdominals) is very crucial for expulsion of the baby during parturition (delivery) and with urinary incontinence, both during pregnancy and childbirth.

Regular sexual intercourse has also been shown to be beneficial in preventing prostate cancer.

TAKE HOME MESSAGE

To conclude, both – intense, short-burst interval training with resistance exercise thrown in – and regular sexual activity seems to utilize the same mechanisms and fitness parameters. Improving fitness will improve your performance in bed; regular sexual intercourse (and exercise itself) in turn will cause a plethora of health and fitness benefits.

References Cited

Brennan, F. X., and C. J. Charnetski, 2000 Explanatory style and Immunoglobulin A (IgA): Integr.Physiol Behav.Sci., v. 35, no. 4, p. 251-255.

Charnetski, C. J., and F. X. Brennan, 2004 Sexual frequency and salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA): Psychol.Rep., v. 94, no. 3 Pt 1, p. 839-844.

Craig BW, Brown R, Everhart J, 1989 Effects of progressive resistance training on growth hormone and testosterone levels in young and elderly subjects.  Mech Ageing Dev., v. 49, no. 2, p. 159-169.

O’Keefe, J. H., R. Vogel, C. J. Lavie, and L. Cordain, 2010a Organic fitness: physical activity consistent with our hunter-gatherer heritage: Phys.Sportsmed., v. 38, no. 4, p. 11-18.

O’Keefe, J. H., R. Vogel, C. J. Lavie, and L. Cordain, 2011 Exercise like a hunter-gatherer: a prescription for organic physical fitness: Prog.Cardiovasc.Dis., v. 53, no. 6, p. 471-479.

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00000SusThe worldwide prevalence of obesity has reached epic proportions. So much so, that calling obesity a pandemic wouldn’t amount to exaggeration! In addition to putting individual lives on the line, obesity has the ability to severely increase health care costs, negatively impacting on most economies of the world 1;2.

So, what is it that causes obesity – you might want to ask!


What causes obesity?

Well. traditionally, we have been told that ‘excess intake of calories coupled with decreased expenditure’ is the immediate cause of obesity. Excess calories are treated as reserve food material (read: fats) and deposited as triglycerides (TGs) inside adipose tissue (fat stores). However, having said that,it does not seem to be as simple as that.

Recently, it is increasingly being suggested (and, I am one of those who believes in this) that obesity may be a metabolic disorder where your nutrient metabolism goes for a toss. Also, rather than how many calories you consume, what kind of food you eat (and where the calories are coming from) will define if you stay lean or pack on weight; ingestion of nutrient-dense food is likely to make you leaner and healthier than foods that are only rich in calorie and poor in nutrients.

Also, a number of (as yet poorly understood) factors play a causative role: hormones, metabolic enzymes, metabolic rate, nutrient partitioning and calorie partitioning abilities of the individual. It must be emphasized here that the kind of food you eat will have a massive influence all of the aforementioned factors.

Anthropometric tell-tale signs of obesity are:

  • Increased waist circumference
  • Increased waist-hip ratio
  • Increased body mass index (BMI)

Adverse-effects of being Obese?

In addition to the much publicized ill-effects of obesity (given below), not many people are aware that obesity causes testosterone deficiency (TD) as well. Testosterone has a prominent effect on metabolism; deficiency can add to the problems. In addition, low levels of T can have a detrimental effect on a person’s psyche, making it hard to stick to a prescribed regimen of healthy food and exercise to counter obesity. Thus a ‘vicious cycle’ connection exists between obesity and low testosterone levels.

Well-known adverse-effects of obesity are:

  • Metabolic syndrome
  • Cardiovascular disease (CVD)
  • Diabetes Mellitus (Type 2 DM)
  • Hypertension (rise in blood pressure)

Testosterone deficiency and Obesity in Men

Testosterone (as the major male sexual hormone) is responsible for the male sexual and reproductive functions. However, not many people are aware that it plays a significant role in calorie utilization and metabolism as well. The exact mechanisms by which testosterone levels are affected in / contribute to obesity remain a mystery 3.

However, here are some interesting facts connecting testosterone to obesity are: testosterone:

  • causes nitrogen retention (read: increasing muscle mass, as part of the anabolic process) 3;4, low levels in obesity therefore cause loss of lean muscle
  • affects body composition in a positive way by reducing fat mass and increasing lean muscle mass 5, low levels therefore, reverse these effects
  • stimulates hormone sensitive lipase (enzyme responsible for fat breakdown), inhibits triglyceride uptake and mobilises fat from fat stores 6, low levels in obesity therefore, lead to increased fat deposition
  • an inverse relationship exists between parameters of obesity (WC, WHR and BMI) and plasma testosterone levels in an individual 3
  • an inverse relationship also exists between the ill-effects of obesity like metabolic syndrome, hypertension, type 2 diabetes and plasma levels of testosterone 7
  • number of studies report the irrefutable proof that low testosterone levels are connected with diabetes and cardiovascular disease 8;9
  • low levels of testosterone definitely connected with all-cause mortality 10

Thus, it can safely be said that testosterone is responsible for maintaining and increasing muscle while burning fat; low levels are responsible for fat deposition resulting in obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome and increased mortality 3-5;7-10.


How can obesity be treated?

A number of strategies have been proposed by researchers, physicians and fitness professional to fight obesity. Some of these are:

  1. Calorie Deficit: This involves ‘dieting’, using liquid diets, etc. However, this causes loss of lean mass in addition to fat loss
  2. Calorie Deficit combined with Exercise: This maintains lean mass whilst causing weight loss, however a number of people have found this pretty hard to stick to
  3. Surgery (gastric binding or bariatric): effective but reserved only for the morbidly obese

A novel, effective method proposed for treating obesity is combining exercise and healthy diet with testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) – especially if accompanying signs and symptoms suggestive of hypogonadism are present. Additionally, as opposed to other modes of treatment, testosterone has the potential to elevate mood and energy and reduce fatigue 11.


Future research

Although TRT sounds like an exciting treatment option for tackling obesity, the plasma levels of testosterone at which therapy should be initiated remain undefined. Currently, it is recommended only in individuals diagnosed with testosterone deficiency (hypogonadism / erectile dysfunction).

A sad fact is that most doctors treating obese patients with diabetes or cardiovascular disease are not aware of the connection of testosterone with obesity and the potential benefits of testosterone therapy. Furthermore, the misconception that testosterone increases cardiovascular risk 12 and chances of pancreatic cancer prevents clinicians from prescribing testosterone 13.

There is a definite and realistic need to further explore this option for treating obesity in men. Also, an effort should be initiated to educate both doctors as well as members of the general population (who are struggling with obesity and its ill-effects) regarding the benefits of testosterone replacement therapy.


References

(1) Kypreos KE. Mechanisms of obesity and related pathologies. FEBS J 2009; 276(20):5719.

(2) Freedman DH. How to fix the obesity crisis. Sci Am 2011; 304(2):40-47.

(3) Traish AM, Feeley RJ, Guay A. Mechanisms of obesity and related pathologies: androgen deficiency and endothelial dysfunction may be the link between obesity and erectile dysfunction. FEBS J 2009; 276(20):5755-5767.

(4) Singh R, Artaza JN, Taylor WE, Braga M, Yuan X, Gonzalez-Cadavid NF et al. Testosterone inhibits adipogenic differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells: nuclear translocation of androgen receptor complex with beta-catenin and T-cell factor 4 may bypass canonical Wnt signaling to down-regulate adipogenic transcription factors. Endocrinology 2006; 147(1):141-154.

(5) Emmelot-Vonk MH, Verhaar HJ, Nakhai Pour HR, Aleman A, Lock TM, Bosch JL et al. Effect of testosterone supplementation on functional mobility, cognition, and other parameters in older men: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2008; 299(1):39-52.

(6) Traish AM, Abdou R, Kypreos KE. Androgen deficiency and atherosclerosis: The lipid link. Vascul Pharmacol 2009; 51(5-6):303-313.

(7) Dhindsa S, Miller MG, McWhirter CL, Mager DE, Ghanim H, Chaudhuri A et al. Testosterone concentrations in diabetic and nondiabetic obese men. Diabetes Care 2010; 33(6):1186-1192.

(8) Aversa A. Drugs targeted to improve endothelial function: clinical correlates between sexual and internal medicine. Curr Pharm Des 2008; 14(35):3698-3699.

(9) Cattabiani C, Basaria S, Ceda GP, Luci M, Vignali A, Lauretani F et al. Relationship between testosterone deficiency and cardiovascular risk and mortality in adult men. J Endocrinol Invest 2012; 35(1):104-120.

(10) Araujo AB, Dixon JM, Suarez EA, Murad MH, Guey LT, Wittert GA. Clinical review: Endogenous testosterone and mortality in men: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2011; 96(10):3007-3019.

(11) Saad F, Aversa A, Isidori AM, Gooren LJ. Testosterone as potential effective therapy in treatment of obesity in men with testosterone deficiency: a review. Curr Diabetes Rev 2012; 8(2):131-143.

(12) Traish AM, Kypreos KE. Testosterone and cardiovascular disease: an old idea with modern clinical implications. Atherosclerosis 2011; 214(2):244-248.

(13) Morgentaler A. Testosterone replacement therapy and prostate cancer. Urol Clin North Am 2007; 34(4):555-63, vii.

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Eye Fillet / Grass-fed Beef

Grain-fed meats (especially, beef) are better than grass-fed meats when it comes to flavor and palatability. However, the same doesn’t seem to be true when we compare the nutrition value – and consequently, health benefits of the two. Researchers now believe that grain-fed meats may not be as healthy as their grass-fed counterparts. 

An increasing number of people are beginning to question the rationale of eating animals raised on grain-feed. In fact, the entire theory of ‘whole grains’ being healthy for humans is increasingly being challenged in recent times – there are those who believe that the root cause of rise in human obesity and other metabolic diseases may be the ingestion of whole grains, especially wheat – read about Dr William Davis’s theory and his book ‘Wheat Belly’ here.

But why should grass-fed meat be better, you might want to ask?! Let us have a look.

Livestock farming

Up until the 1940s, livestock were raised on a ‘grass diet’ – much of the beef and other meats, therefore, came from ‘grass-finished’ cattle 1 . However, from the 1950s onwards, demands for meat rose sharply. To meet these demands, there was a need to reduce the ‘days on feed’ time.

Genetic researchers recommended feeding ‘high-grain’ diet for fattening and getting the livestock ‘ready for the market’ in a shorter time period. Grain feeds therefore became a norm, not only for beef but also for poultry and farm-raised fish. High-energy grains – such as corn – ensured improved marbling (fat within muscle) and a higher meat yield while reducing the ‘days on feed’.

Recently, however, manufacturers are beginning to realize an increasing demand for ‘grass-finished animals’.  This has contributed to the resurgence of ‘grass-feed’  approach’ in the beef production industry. 

Reducing or totally eliminating grains from the diet of animals has resulted in more leaner beef. Scientific evidence has shown conclusively that leaner cuts of beef have the potential to decrease blood cholesterol levels in both, people with high cholesterol (hypercholesterolemia) and in those with normal cholesterol. Thus, grass-fed leaner cuts of meat may significantly reduce risk of heart disease 3-6

 Why makes grass-fed meat better than grain-fed?

In an effort to understand the superiority of grass-fed meats, scientists have compared the differences between the composition of grass-fed and grain-fed meats. They believe that grass-fed beef has a higher antioxidant content and a healthier fatty acid profile. 

Some benefits of grass-fed  meats can be summarized as below:

Grass-fed meat…

    • is nutrient-dense: in general, grass-feed beef is reported to be richer in nutrients than grain-fed. This is not only restricted to healthy fats but also protein and micronutrients
    • has a higher antioxidant content: grass-fed beef contains higher levels of antioxidants like glutathione (GT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) – these have cancer-fighting abilities
    • is lower in starch carbs: owing to lower carb content in grass-fed meats, the likelihood of you gaining weight is lesser compared to when you eat grain-feed meet
    • helps fight chronic disease: grass-fed meats increase the level of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and omega-3 fatty acids; these reduce bad cholesterol (LDL) and increase the good cholesterol (HDL) in blood. Needless to say, this will protect you from heart disease
    • and, is safer: farm-fed animals are more likely to suffer from diseases and hence are immunized, treated with antibiotics and injected with hormones; these will end up in your system if you eat meat coming from grain-fed animals

 Dr Jorge Rodriguez, MD, recommends a burger made of grass-fed beef for dyspepsia – or what is commonly known as heartburn. He has even described the recipe for an anti-acid reflux beef burger; read about it here. More and more butchers worldwide are now offering ‘free-range’ and ‘grass-completed’ products; Cannings in Australia is a brilliant example.

Take Home Message

To conclude, it makes sense to eat meat from animals raised in their natural habitats eating their natural diets.

That way, you are rest assured the meat you are consuming came from healthy animals. Eating healthy, ‘grass-fed’ meat will mean you stay healthy too!

References

(1) Daley CA, Abbott A, Doyle PS, Nader GA, Larson S. A review of fatty acid profiles and antioxidant content in grass-fed and grain-fed beef. Nutr J 2010; 9:10.

(2) O’Dea K, Traianedes K, Chisholm K, Leyden H, Sinclair AJ. Cholesterol-lowering effect of a low-fat diet containing lean beef is reversed by the addition of beef fat. Am J Clin Nutr 1990; 52(3):491-494.

(3) Beauchesne-Rondeau E, Gascon A, Bergeron J, Jacques H. Plasma lipids and lipoproteins in hypercholesterolemic men fed a lipid-lowering diet containing lean beef, lean fish, or poultry. Am J Clin Nutr 2003; 77(3):587-593.

(4) Melanson K, Gootman J, Myrdal A, Kline G, Rippe JM. Weight loss and total lipid profile changes in overweight women consuming beef or chicken as the primary protein source. Nutrition 2003; 19(5):409-414.

(5) Denke MA. Role of beef and beef tallow, an enriched source of stearic acid, in a cholesterol-lowering diet. Am J Clin Nutr 1994; 60(6 Suppl):1044S-1049S.

(6) Smith DR, Wood R, Tseng S, Smith SB. Increased beef consumption increases apolipoprotein A-I but not serum cholesterol of mildly hypercholesterolemic men with different levels of habitual beef intake. Exp Biol Med (Maywood ) 2002; 227(4):266-275.

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Image‘Eat Stop Eat’ is a simplistic diet plan for weight loss, made famous by a certain Brad Pilon. Before we get into the intricacies of what ‘Eat Stop Eat’ is and if it really works, there is no denying the fact ‘Eat Stop Eat’ has created a storm of sorts by taking on the established norms of dieting for losing weight – theories like the big breakfast, the six meals a day, the protein intake, the low carbs and numerous others, have been utterly (and convincingly) debunked by Brad – all of a sudden, these theories look like a big lie!

Here’s an insight into this new revolutionary way of losing weight and a look at whether it really does work – please click here to read my full article on the subject.

Please do note that I am not trying to sell anyone the plan nor am I being paid by Brad to write this review. I just like it since it brings a lot of refreshing changes to our present way of thinking as far as fat loss diet is concerned. Furthermore, it’s simple…AND IT REALLY WORKS!

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